Analyse & Kritik

Journal of Philosophy and Social Theory


"Viktor Vanberg"

Titel: Rational Choice and Moral Order
Autor: Viktor Vanberg / James M. Buchanan
Seite: 138-160

"The problem which science has to solve here consists in the explanation of a social phenomenon, of a homogeneous way of acting on the part of the members of a community for which public motives are recognizable, but for which in the concrete case individual motives are hard to discern." (Carl Menger 1985, 152)

Abstract: The article discusses some of the fundamental conceptual and theoretical aspects of rational choice and moral order. A distinction is drawn between constitutional interests and compliance interests, and it is argued that a viable moral order requires that the two interests somehow be brought into congruence. It is shown that with regard to the prospects for a spontaneous emergence of such congruence, a distinction between two kinds of moral rules which we call trust-rules and solidarity-rules is of crucial importance.

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Titel: Individual Choice and Institutional Constraints. The Normative Element in Classical and Contractarian Liberalism
Autor: Viktor Vanberg
Seite: 113-149

Abstract: Normative individualism appears to be an obvious normative premise underlying a liberal conception of the desirable social order. The shortcomings of some common interpretations of this premise are discussed and a more consistent as well as a more workable standard for assessing the ,goodness, of alternative socio-institutional arrangements is specified. With such an interpretation of normative individualism, a contractrarian conception as advocated by J. M. Buchanan can be viewed as a systematic extension of classical liberalism.

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Titel: Individualism, Libertarianism and Non-Cognitivism
Autor: Hartmut Kliemt
Seite: 211-228

Abstract: This paper suggests that libertarian and (related) contractarian ideas would be less vulnerable to certain forms of criticism if they would more carefully disentangle their legal and moral standards for the assessment of institutions from empirical, methodological, and epistemological assumptions about individualism and non-cognitivism. Holding apart several meanings of individualism different issues can be treated separately. It Will be shown that the justification of libertarian norms raises some problems which are not too easily solved within a non-cognitivist approach. No attempt to solve them is made subsequently but how far in principle the ,argumentation possibility frontier, might be shifted out for that purpose is outlined. In this respect the paper might be regarded as a companion to Viktor Vanberg's brillant reconstruction of contractarian liberalism in this issue of ANALYSE & KRITIK (pp. 113-149).

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Der ökonomische Ansatz in den Sozialwissenschaften I
1988 (10) Heft 2

Die Überzeugungskraft und der Erfolg des ökonomischen Ansatzes ist wesentlich verbunden mit seinem methodologischen Individualismus und seiner Theorie der rationalen Entscheidung: 1. Komplexe soziale Tatsachen werden erklärt durch Zurückführung auf ein einheitliches Fundament, dessen elementare Bedeutung für jedermann nachvollziehbar ist: auf individuelle Entscheidungen, die Menschen in bestimmten Situationen zwischen verschiedenen Handlungsmöglichkeiten treffen. 2. Diese Entscheidungen w...

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Methodologischer Individualismus
1986 (8) Heft 2

Es gehört auch heute noch zu den Grundüberzeugungen vieler Soziologen, daß sich das Phänomen gesellschaftlicher Ordnung nicht auf Annahmen und Theorien über Individuen und individuelles Handeln zürückführen läßt. IndiViduelle Eigenschaften und Handlungen werden im Gegenteil selbst als einer soziologischen Erklärung bedürftig angesehen. Jeder "Individualismus" wird von diesen Soziologen deshalb strikt abgelehnt, sei es als methodologisches, normatives oder empirisches Programm. Gesell...

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